Vol. 8, Jan-Dec 2022

Indigenous Soil Fertility and Water Resource Management Practices in Awi Zone, Amhara National Regional State (ANRS), Northwest Ethiopia

Ayenew Mammo Seyoum 25/01/2022 Page: 01-08

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The people of Awi have succeeded in preserving their age-old traditions that are handed down from generation to generation. In Awi farm land and soil fertility management systems employ three major types of strategies in order to manage the organic matter and chemical fertility of the cultivated soils: Mixed cropping rotational cropping and indigenous organic practices. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to soil for the purpose of crop production. The major purpose of this paper is, therefore, to bring out, to assess and analyze the indigenous soil fertility management systems as well as the indigenous managements of river waters for irrigation. In the course of the study, I have depended mainly on primary and secondary sources, as well as oral informants, and archival materials. For archives, I have used Debre Markos University Archive Center, Addis Ababa National Archives and Library Agency, Institute of Ethiopian Studies of Addis Ababa University and Awi Zone Agriculture Office. Indeed, gathering oral information from knowledgeable individuals through interviews was another important source data for the research. The interview was effectively addressed by qualitative approach through purposive sampling method. In the interview semi structured interview questions were designed for acquiring valuable information about the study. The age and the ability to remember the past events and the level of participation in the local affairs were given emphasis for the selection of informants. The data which I collected from oral sources were crosschecked with archival and secondary sources before interpretation. Thus, the consideration of the land tenure system and the social structure as well as taxation system in Agaw Meder (presently Awi Zone) helps to study and investigate not only the study area but also to comprehend other areas regarding the issue.

The Moderating Effect of Youth Empowerment Programmes Between Institutional Reputation and Skills Acquisition in Kano State, Nigeria

Magajiya Tanko, Yahya Uthman Abdullahi 12/03/2022 Page: 09-23

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The capability of a country to accomplish a sustainable development is basically depend on the skills of its youthful segment, as well as its institutions. Thus, the objective of this paper is to examine the relationship of institutional reputation and skills acquisition moderated by youth empowerment program. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed the respondents who were the beneficiaries of the programs drawn from the seven Skill Acquisition Institutes in the Kano State, Nigeria. 318 usable questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The study has used SPSS 20 for the assessment of the hypothesized model. The multiple and hierarchical regression analysis were employed for data analysis. The results discovered that there was a positive and significant relationship between institutional reputation and skills acquisition, and further study inferred that the effect of youth empowerment has positively but insignificantly influence institutional reputation towards skills acquisition. Other findings include the need to maintain a high degree of cooperation between institutions and industry in a country with high segments of youth facing major difficulties in searching adequate employments. The findings of the study are of a great value to both theory and practice and have vital implications for academicians, practitioners and policy makers.

The Effect of Strategic Decision-Making Processes in Determining the Strategic Orientation of Hotel Organizations: A Field Study in a Sample of Iraqi Hotels of the Highest Class

Assist Prof. Akram Abdulkareem 22/06/2022 Page: 24-31

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The research aims to shed light on the most important theoretical and field features of the concept of strategic orientation and to indicate the dimensions and indicators through which the hotel organization can be judged that it adopts the optimal strategic orientation. On facing and overcoming problems in hotel work in light of recent changes, and consequently, these organizations have become in a position to adopt modern approaches to strategic decision-making processes. Its views through a questionnaire prepared for this purpose and one of the most important conclusions is that the strategic orientation translates the nature of the vision and mission of the organization and the nature of the strategic goals. Therefore, the administrations face an important imperative that appears in the necessity of deepening the understanding of this dimension, which is missing by many Iraqi hotel administrations, which is what the researcher touched through the field study and one of the most prominent Recommendations: It is necessary for hotel administrations to support efforts to deepen understanding of the content of strategic decision-making processes My strategy, in a systematic scientific way, is far from improvisation and emotion, which can be accomplished through the adoption of developmental training policies and forums for the dissemination of strategic thought and research and scientific work.

Subject Review: Organizational Identification Of Business Organizations

Dr. Muthana Zahim Fisal, Asst. Prof. Dr. Suhair Adel Hamed 28/06/2022 Page: 32-37

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The concept of Organizational Identification (OI) has had an interesting history, spanning nearly more than seven decades (1947-present). Although it was proposed in 1950 the concept remained static and stable until the early nineties. In 1970 it lost its identity and was classified under the definition of Attitudinal Obligation (ATOC) Hence, it is often referred to as "Cinderella Organizational Studies". In the late 1980s, organizational Identification was recognized as a unique construct, in order to distinguish it from other related constructs with a differential effect on individual and organizational outcomes. In a comprehensive review of the literature, this review consolidates key milestones in the evolution of organizational Identification over the past seven decades. This article highlights current research trends in the field of organizational homology identification, It raises questions about some of the trends that could pose a threat to the definition of basic organizational Identification from the past, It concludes by providing guidance for future research on identifying organizational Identification.

Face Threatening Act in Media Chat: A Discourse-Pragmatic Analysis

Asst. Prof. Dr. Bushra Ni’ma Rashid 29/06/2022 Page: 38-52

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The purpose of this study is to investigate how face threatening acts are used in Donald Trump’s Victory speech. The study has examined the use of different speech acts (requests, offers, promises, etc.) to impose negative or positive face threat on either the speaker or the hearer, in order to obtain political objectives. The study is, therefore, based on the study of face threatening acts used by the former American president, Donald Trump, in his victory speech. The researcher also wants to examine whether positive or negative face threatening acts are being used more frequently by Trump. It is hypothesized that the American president, Donald Trump, uses negative face threatening acts more frequently than positive face threatening acts. The procedures followed by the researcher involves illustrating the adopted model of analysis of Brown and Levinson’s (1987) model on politeness theory, and collecting data. One speech by the former USA President, Donald Trump has been chosen. The researcher has discovered that Trump uses negative face threatening acts more than the positive one towards the hearer.

Sanctions on Russia and its Implications on Trade, Economy and Finance

Ekta Manhas 02/07/2022 Page: 53-55

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The Russia-Ukraine war in February 2022 and the sanctions imposed on Russia have extensive geo-political and geo-economic repercussions on a global scale. In addition to impacting international power politics, it has altered the global economy in terms of the international commodity market, international trade, financial flows, and financial markets. The sanctions have reversed the progress of the global economy, which had just begun to recover from the pandemic recession. The US and EU have previously placed sanctions on Russia because of its war with Ukraine and its annexation of Crimea in 2014.